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kolektivno samoobrazovanje u umetnosti i kulturi…

(English) Notes from the workshop: THE CASE OF WORKGROUP CHTO DELAT?

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(English) Deschooling :: Suzana Milevska

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Samoorganizacija :: Ana Vilenica

U kontekstu savremenog društva, posebno umetnosti i kulture, obeleženog prelazom od socijalne funkcije politike ka ekonomskoj funkciji, pitanje organizacije postaje ključno.

U tekstu Dagegen Dabei Nicolas Siepen definiše pojam samo-organizacija kao koncept koji daje specifično značenje opštem pojmu kolektivnosti[1]. On pravi razliku između levičarske i desničarske koncepcije kolektivnosti. Samo-organizacija dolazi iz levičarskog arsenala, i nalazi se na suprotnoj strani u odnosu na desničarske pojmove i koncepte, koji su obeleženi odsustvom tolerancije prema konfliktima koji su vidljivi spolja. U tom smislu samo-organizacija stavlja akcenat na fleksibilno značenje pojma mi u odnosu na statično mi koje je postavljeno nasuprot Drugog.

Jedan od ključnih pojmova u odnosu na samo-organizaciju, prema Iskri Gešoskoj, je solidarnost. Ovaj pojam ona shvata kao put prema transparentnosti Sebe ili Sopstva, kroz fleksibilnost ka Drugome ili Drugosti.[2]

Pojam samo-organizacije takođe se može dovesti u vezu i sa teorijom kompleksnih sistema. U tom smislu samo-organizovani sistemi predstavljaju najsofisticiranije i najsloženije sisteme, koji se generišu iz sopstvene unutrašnje dinamike, bez vođstva ili upravljanja nekog spoljašnjeg izvora. Odatle, pojam samo-organizacija ni u kom smislu ne može da implicira dez-organizaciju ili ne-organizaciju. Samo-organizacioni model je uvek generativan. To je model koji nema hijerarhijsku strukturu, tačnije, organizovan je odozdo ili odozdo naviše, a ne odozgo nadole kao što je slučaj u institucionalnim modelima, što omogućava višestruke tokove informacija.

U praktično-političkom smislu samo-organizacija se može razumeti kao način otpora ili intervencije usmeren ka postojećim dominantnim modelima organizacije, ka otvaranju mogućnosti za  kreiranje alternativnog prostora unutar, naspram ili izvan institucionalne mreže.

U odnosu na s-o-s projekat to znači da saradnici grade za sebe alternativni obrazovni model kroz nehijerarhijski, rizomatski način saradnje, u kojem svako učestvuje u svim segmentima projekta, kao što su: organizacija, procesi donošenja odluka, istraživanje itd.

Ovakav model organizacije u bliskoj je vezi sa pojmom (radničko) samoupravljanje.

Prema: TkH, časopis za teoriju izvođačkih umetnosti, br. 11: Samoorganizacija, Beograd, 2006.


[1] Nicolas Siepen, “Degegen Debei – Therby Against; Fight for Relevance, or Relation between self-organisation, institutionalisation and Power (Berlin)”, TkH br. 11: “Samo-organizacija”, Beograd, 2006, str. 80

[2] Iskra Gešoska, “The Archeology of Solidarity”, TkH br. 11: Samo-organizacija, Beograd, 2006,  str. 76

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[Radničko] Samoupravljanje :: Ivana Marjanović, Vida Knežević

Samoupravljanje je niz metoda, veština i tehnika kojima pojedinci ili grupe mogu efektno usmeriti svoje aktivnosti ka postizanju svojih ciljeva.

Radničko samoupravljanje[1] je organizacioni model ekonomije u kojem radnici imaju moć donošenja odluka, nasuprot tradicionalnom autoritativnom konceptu organizacije gde postoji podela između onih koji donose odluke (savet menadžera, direktor, poslodavac) i onih koji te odluke izvršavaju (radnici).

Radničko samoupravljanje je koncept državne strukture koji je u izvesnom obliku bio uveden u bivšoj Jugoslaviji (Federativnoj Narodnoj Republici Jugoslaviji i Socijalističkoj Federativnoj Republici Jugoslaviji). Posle Rezolucije Informbiroa[2], isključivanjem KPJ (Komunističke Partije Jugoslavije) iz Informbiroa u junu 1948. i prekida sa SSSR-om ovaj model, kao odgovor na i kritika sovjetskog sistema, funkcioniše u Jugoslaviji između šezdesetih i osamdesetih godina.

Radničko samoupravljanje u Jugoslaviji bilo je koncipirano kao mešavina centralizovano planiranog socijalizma Sovjetskog Saveza i Zapadne tržišne ekonomije. Mada je radničko samoupravljanje predstavljalo demonstraciju direktne demokratije, gde su radnici bili u poziciji da odlučuju o određenim pitanjima, stroga kontrola vladajuće Komunističke partije u obliku administrativnog kadra bila je sveprisutna. Tako je ovaj vid „direktne” demokratije bio primenjen samo na nižim organizacionim nivoima, u obliku Radničkih saveta koji su imali autonomiju u donošenju odluka vezanih za raspodelu plata, pitanja zaposlenja itd. Ipak, Partijski komitet je odlučivao o temama višeg nivoa poput kadrovskih pitanja. Sve ovo je učinilo koncept radničkog samoupravljanja hermetičnim, autokratskim i prema tome nedosledno uvedenim i primenjenim.

Ipak, može biti značajno iznova preispitati ovaj pojam i ukazati na potencijal radničkog samoupravljanja kao jednog alternativnog organizacionog modela koji može biti ponovo prisvojen od strane novih nezavisnih, samo-organizovanih kulturnih i umetničkih praksi koje su aktivne u kontekstu neo-liberalnog kapitalizma i tranzicije koja mu prethodi.


[1] Vidi: Todor Kuljić, Yugoslavia’s Workers’ Self-Management, Transkript video rada Olivera Resslera, http://www.republicart.net/disc/aeas/kuljic01_en.htm

[2] Reč Informbiro je jugoslovenska skraćenica za Informativni biro, od Komunistički informativni biro .

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DESCHOOLING CLASSROOM :: basic info

Deschooling Classroom [Self-education in the arts and culture] is a project that addresses the contemporary independent cultural scenes in the region, researching and offering an alternative to the hierarchical models of education in the art and culture. Methodologically, the project moves away from the concepts of individual authorship and expertise, and advocates open collective educational structures where self-organised communities facilitate horizontal production, exchange and distribution of knowledge.

The project is organised by TkH (Walking Theory) platform for performing arts theory and practice from Belgrade (http://tkh-generator.net) in partnership with Kontrapunkt, from Skopje (http://kontrapunkt-mk.org).

Its specific objectives are:

  • to raise the awareness of potentialities of self-education, and to develop methodologies for alternative education in contemporary art and culture;
  • to offer studying new and hybrid fields of contemporary culture and art and to help sharing the critical knowledge among art and cultural practitioners;
  • to stimulate collaboration among those who aim to intervene in the existing cultural system;
  • to challenge the conceptual and infra-structural set-up of cultural institutions; and
  • to create new supporting infrastructures for the independent cultural scenes.

The project builds upon international trends of alternative educational culture that appeared in late 20th century in the context of post-Fordist capitalist societies[1]. The wide ranging initiatives try to critically reflect the mainstream education and to find various alternatives, more appropriate to the new social conditions and increased importance of the service industry. Our project is concentrated on independent cultural scenes in the age of transition in the Balkans, where self-organisation and self-education are necessary for the actors to act critically and to be socially relevant and engaged. Its theoretical background is contemporary critical theory, and some of the main references are: Jacques Rancier’s reflections from Ignorant Schoolmaster,[2] Jean-Luc Nancy’s theses on collaboration and belonging, and Ivan Illich’s radical thoughts from Deschooling Society.[3]

Programme of the project runs through two “vectors”:

  1. Content – the programme is orientated toward critical, inter-disciplinary, hybrid knowledge in the field of contemporary art and culture; wherein possible topics include: Curatorial practices in visual and non-visual arts, Interdisciplinary dramaturgy; Free software and digital technology; Inter-medial artistic production, etc;
  2. Methodology – various forms of research and learning about skills and principles of self-organisation and self-education will be organised, e.g. workshops about facilitation, practical advices for running an NGO, discussions about models of decision making processes and about non-hierarchical group work, etc.

In terms of activities, the project is organised in two cycles through which each “generation” will go through the process of collective self-education. Each generation consists of 3-4 working groups gathered around common themes in the above mentioned fields. All the groups have regional character and include 6-8 members from both Belgrade and Skopje. They will participate in following programmes:

  • Open Week is 3-day event, consisting of workshops, lectures and presentations, whose aim is to attract attention and raise awareness about self-education – therefore these will be open to the general public. The open weeks will be organised in Belgrade in 2009 and in Skopje in 2010, and they are departing points for each generation.
  • Incubator comprises a long-term (6 months) collaborative work of the working groups. Their curricula will be designed by the participants, and include a continual self-educational process of the groups in Belgrade and Skopje via video link, and programmes facilitated by invited guest lecturers every month.
  • Summer School is intense one-week educational event, held once per cycle/year. It is created by the participants of all groups from one generation, for themselves and also for the others interested in the topics, especially those from the region. The summer schools will be organised in Ohrid in 2009 and in 2010 probably in Montenegro (will be decided afterwards).
  • Timeshare Campus is accommodation/work structure that facilitates the collaboration between the participants during the time of preparing collective cultural productions with which each cycle is finalised. Two apartments in Skopje and Belgrade will be rented and made available to the groups in the period of two months. The collaborative products can be e.g. video, fanzine, installation, web site, etc. They will be publicly presented in the region afterwards.
  • The project will end with the production of a Toolbox. It includes a Handbook on self-education, written by the participants, organisers, and guests/lecturers. Also, we will make a documentary film, which presents the project and its potential for application in other contexts. The Toolbox will be publicly presented locally and regionally, aiming to obtain visibility and to impact other regional scenes.

[1] I.e. the context of dominancy of immaterial labour, so called “cognitive capitalism”. See more in: Paolo Virno, Grammar of the Multitude; For an Analysis of Contemporary Forms of Life (2004), New York: Semiotext(e).

[2] Jacques Ranciere: The Ignorant Schoolmaster: Five Lessons in Intellectual Emancipation (1991), Stanford: Stanford University Press.

[3] Illich, Deschooling Society (1971), London: Marion Boyars, available at http://www.preservenet.com/theory/Illich/Deschooling/intro.html.

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